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Enzogenol Studies – to request a copy of the full article as PDF please click below

Bang CY, Choung SY., 2014. Enzogenol improves diabetes-related metabolic change in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 66(6):875-85. (request pdf)

Chayasirisobhon, S., 2006. Use of a pine bark extract and antioxidant vitamin combination product as therapy for migraine in patients refractory to pharmacologic medication. Headache 46: 788-793. (request pdf)

Chayasirisobhon, S., 2013. Efficacy of pinus radiata bark extract and vitamin c combination product as a prophylactic therapy for recalcitrant migraine and long-term results. Acta Neurologica Taiwanica 22, 13-21. (request pdf)

Choi, YH., 2018. Proanthocyanidin‐rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mastcell‐mediated anaphylaxis‐like reactions. Phytotherapy Research 32(2):290-297. (request pdf)

Frevel, M. A., Pipingas, A., Grigsby, W. J., Frampton, C. M., Gilchrist, N. L., 2012. Production, composition and toxicology studies of enzogenol® pinus radiata bark extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, 4316-4324. (request pdf)

Frevel, M., 2019. ENZOGENOL Pine Bark Extract – From An Ancient Remedy To A Natural Neurotherapeutic. in Natural Medicines – Clinical Efficacy, Safety and Quality. Ghosh, D. and Mukherjee, P.K. CRC Press.

Heffernan, SM., et al. 2020. Mineral rich algae with pine bark improved pain, physical function and analgesic use in mild-knee joint osteoarthritis, compared to Glucosamine: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. Available online 19 February 2020, 102349, In-Press Journal Pre-Proof. (request pdf)

Kim, D. S.; Kim, M. S.; Kang, S. W.; Sung, H. Y.; Kang, Y. H., 2010. Pine Bark Extract Enzogenol Attenuated Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-Induced Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Monocyte Transmigration. J Agric Food Chem 58: 7088. (request pdf)

Li, YY., et al. 2015. Pine bark extracts: nutraceutical, pharmacological, and toxicological evaluation. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 353(1):9-16. (request pdf)

Lim, WXJ., et al. 2020. An Acute, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blind, Crossover, Dose-Response, Exploratory Study to Assess the Effects of New Zealand Pine Bark Extract (Enzogenol®) on Glycaemic Responses in Healthy Participants. Nutrients 12(2):497. (request pdf)

Murphy, CT., et al. 2014. The Marine‐derived, Multi‐mineral formula, AquaPT Reduces TNF‐a Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Science 2(3):1-3. (request pdf)

O’Callaghan, YC., et al. 2013. Antioxidant and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Marine-Derived, Multi-Mineral Aquamin Supplemented with Pine Bark Extract, Enzogenol, and Green Tea Extract, Sunphenon. Journal of Medicinal Food 0:1-7. (request pdf)

Pipingas, A.; Silberstein, R. B.; Vitetta, L.; Rooy, C. V.; Harris, E. V.; Young, J. M., et al., 2008. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract Formulation. Phytotherapy Research 22:9 p1168-1174. (request pdf)

Qui, W., 2011. Mechanism of Anti-Wrinkle Effect of Enzogenol. Thesis for the Degree of Master of Pharmacy, Department of Fundamental Pharmaceutical Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. (request pdf)

Senthilmohan, S. T.; Zhang, J.; Stanley, R. A., 2003. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol® with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 23: 1199-1210. (request pdf)

Shand, B.; Strey, C.; Scott, R.; Morrison, Z.; Gieseg, S. 2003. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother Res 17: 490-494. (request pdf)

Theodom, A., Mahon, S., Barker-Collo, S., McPherson, K., Rush, E., Vandal, A. C., Feigin, V. L., 2013. Enzogenol for cognitive functioning in traumatic brain injury: A pilot placebo-controlled rct. European Journal of Neurology 20: 1135-44. (request pdf)

Walter A, Finelli K, Bai X, Arnett P, Bream T, Seidenberg P, Lynch S, Johnson B, Slobounov S., 2017. Effect of Enzogenol® Supplementation on Cognitive, Executive, and Vestibular/Balance Functioning in Chronic Phase of Concussion. Developmental Neuropsychology 42: 93-103. (request pdf)

Wood, J. E.;Senthilmohan, S. T.;Peskin, A. V., 2002. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 77: 155-161. (request pdf)

Young, J. M.;Shand, B. I.;Mcgregor, P. M.;Scott, R. S.;Frampton, C. M., 2006. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic Res 40: 85-94. (request pdf)